Jump to navigation Jump to search Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that studies the movement of heat between different objects. Thermodynamics also studies the change in pressure and volume of objects. A branch of math called statistics is often used in thermodynamics to look at the motion of particles.
Lambert Reproduction or excerpts permitted if request is made to entropy. It is the ultimate basis of chemical industries that have kept the world from starvation for the past half century fertilizer manufacture using nitrogen from the air and kept us healthy and less in pain in that time via processes for life-saving and pain-relieving pharmaceuticals.
Entropy also is simple to describe and explain qualitatively. Entropy in quantitative thermodynamics is more difficult and often complex. However, to begin our qualitative approach we must avoid the briar patches involving the second law and entropy that have been planted all over acres of book pages and Web sites.
For those who prefer conclusions before explanations: The second law of thermodynamics says that energy of all kinds in our material world disperses or spreads out if it is not hindered from doing so.
Entropy is the quantitative measure of that kind of spontaneous process: This article will use many everyday examples to illustrate those conclusions and briefly relate them to atomic and molecular behavior. Search engines have correctly called a popular website on entropy "puzzling".
Its author is an architect, not a scientist. The only best-selling book on entropy ever published, filled with errors leading to absurd statements, was written by a person with degrees in economics and in international affairs but no scientific background. An additional source of confusion to anyone outside of chemistry or physics is due to brilliant but thoughtless mathematicians.
They decided that it would be amusing to name a very important new mathematical function communication "entropy" because "no one knows what [thermodynamic] entropy really is, so in a debate you will always have the advantage".
For the past half-century this has turned out to be a cruel practical joke imposed on generations of scientists and non-scientists because many authors have completely mixed up information "entropy" and thermodynamic entropy.
They are not the same! From the s until now, in physics and chemistry the two sciences originating and most extensively using the concept entropy has applied only to situations involving energy flow that can be measured as "heat" change, as is indicated by the two-word description, thermodynamic "heat action or flow" entropy.
Only thermodynamic entropy will be dealt with in this article. Whenever information "entropy" is discussed — especially when it is in the same article as thermodynamic entropy — that mathematical "entropy" should be in quotes to clearly distinguish it from entropy, i.
Scientific Note for chemists, physicists, mathematicians: Thermodynamic entropy change consists of two factors. Entropy change is enabled in chemistry by the motional energy of molecules or from bond energy change in a chemical reaction but thermodynamic entropy is only actualized if the process itself expansion, heating, mixing, reaction makes available a larger number of microstates, a maximal Boltzmann probability at the specific temperature.
Information "entropy" consists only of the latter factor of probability.
These theoretical systems are not only useless to a beginner but what happens in them can profoundly confuse anyone trying to understand entropy and the second law in the real world. We humans live in an open system of earth, sun, and outer space.
We encounter the second law and entropy within that open system.
Therefore, the energy-entropy relationships that are useful for us to examine are in that real system. This confusion about disorder and entropy comes from an statement by a brilliant theoretical physicist whose mathematical contributions to thermodynamics and entropy are still totally valid.
However, his attempt to interpret entropy in simple language was incorrect because only after his death in came an understanding of molecular behavior. It has been deleted from most first-year university chemistry textbooks in the US. In the humanities and popular literature, the repeated use of entropy in connection with "disorder" in the multitude of its different common meanings has caused enormous intellectual harm.
The result is that a nineteenth century error about entropy's meaning has been generally and mistakenly applied to disorderly parties, dysfunctional personal lives, and even disruptions in international events.In simplest terms, the Laws of Thermodynamics dictate the specifics for the movement of heat and work.
Basically, the First Law of Thermodynamics is a statement of the conservation of energy - the Second Law is a statement about the direction of that conservation - and the Third Law is a statement about reaching Absolute Zero (0ï¿½ K).
- Understanding Thermodynamics Through the Concepts of Absolute Zero and the Distribution of Molecular Speeds Thermodynamics is the study of work, heat, and the energy of a system (NASA, ).
To help explain in more detail the properties of thermodynamics are the laws of thermodynamics. The four laws of thermodynamics define fundamental physical quantities (temperature, energy, and entropy) that characterize thermodynamic systems. The laws describe how these quantities behave under various circumstances, and forbid certain phenomena (such as perpetual motion).
The four laws of thermodynamics define fundamental physical quantities (temperature, energy, and entropy) that characterize thermodynamic systems at thermal equilibrium. The laws describe how these quantities behave under various circumstances, and forbid certain phenomena (such as .
Here, we’ll look at two physical laws – the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics – and see how they apply to biological systems like you. Systems and surroundings Thermodynamics in biology refers to the study of energy transfers that occur in molecules or collections of molecules.
Simple introduction to entropy, entropy and nature. Introduction. The second law of thermodynamics is a powerful aid to help us understand why the world works as it does — why hot pans cool down, why our bodies stay warm even in the cold, why gasoline makes engines run.