On this day, following Jewish custom, he received the name Jesus Yeshua, a form of Joshuameaning "God saves. He was born in Cappadocia to a wealthy and prominent family. Their worldly wealth, however, is as nothing compared to the wealth of Saints that they have given to the Church:
Historian Lionel Kochan described him as "the best prepared heir the Russian throne ever had". However, Alexander was less of a disciplinarian than his father and was more open to the arguments of others around him. Deeply influenced by defeat in Crimean war and by liberal ministers, Alexander II undertook extensive reforms of Russian society and government.
The Red Papacy, by Michael Tsarion. LEFT: Pope John XXIII was born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli. Another "People's Pope," he replaced Pius XII after his death in To what extent does Tsar Alexander II deserve the epithet “Tsar Liberator”? After the death of Nicholas I (), his son Alexander II was to succeed the. Introduction. A prolonged two-front war was a nightmare scenario for German military strategists in Yet policies formulated by Bismarck in the s ensured that Germany did face threats on both its eastern and western frontiers.
In particular, he emancipated the serfs, which has been described by Tim Chapman as "the single most important law or decree issued by any tsar in nineteenth-century Russia" and is generally seen as one of the most significant social reforms of the nineteenth century.
Situation when Alexander II came to power: The loss in Crimea showed Alexander the need to modernize in order to strengthen Russia and retain its status as a Great Power. Increasing criticisms of the institution of serfdom that constituted the basis of Russian society and the biggest problem facing the government - how to deal with this?
Increasingly abolition of serfdom was seen as necessary to allow progress and modernization in Russia, but the question was how was this to be done? There was significant peasant unrest and social instability, with over peasant revolts between and When Nicholas I tried to recruit troops for the Crimean war from the peasantry this peasant unrest increased considerably, and the levels of violence demanded that the army had to be used to restore order.
Defeat in the Crimea and the succession of a new, younger tsar created a political climate more favourable to reform. Alexander II encouraged this optimism and hope for reform by relaxing press censorship and allowing free discussion of the serfdom issue.
He hoped for a peace and stability in the countryside, with a prosperous and contented peasantry, and for a degree of industrial growth that would strengthen and modernize the army and the economy.
In a nutshell, Alexander wished to chart the delicate middle-path of making the changes necessary to modernize Russia without losing the support of the conservative nobles who supported the Romanov autocracy.
In short, and to summarize, Alexander II wished to modernize Russia as a means of strengthening the autocratic tsarist state.
Put simply, he wanted to have his autocratic cake and eat it! The process of emancipating the serfs: The hostility of the nobility and the landowners to such a measure prevented reform.
As their financial and social status depended on how many serfs they owned, these groups were reluctant to lose status and wealth in favour of the peasants. As the tsar relied upon the nobility to rule the country he could not afford to lose their support by forcing through this reform against their will.
The stability of the Russian social system was deeply dependent on the institution of serfdom, and their were fears from the nobility and Slavophiles that emancipating the serfs would lead to chaos and anarchy if the peasants were to be freed from the control of their serf-owning masters.
Trying to resolve these complex issues and agree on a law to emancipate the serfs involved a long process of reaching compromise with the different powerful interests that feared they would lose out, and it took Alexander five years to complete his Emancipation edict from March to February As the above obstacles suggest, the central issues at stake were land and control: How was society to be kept under control without these obligations?
Should the serfs be given any land? Should the nobles be compensated for the loss of their land? How should this be paid for given the poverty of the country following the Crimean war? When should any such measure take effect? Ultimately, given the autocratic nature of political power in Russia, Alexander must have exercised a personal commitment to emancipating the serfs whatever his motives in doing soas any changes or reforms were obviously dependent upon his approval to be implemented.
Without his consent, no reform would have been possible. Facing social and economic problems and the Crimean defeat, Alexander chose to listen to reformers and personally played an important role in bringing about this major reform.
Details of the Emancipation Edict February Serfs granted personal freedom within 2 years, allowing them to own land, marry without interference, use law courts and set up their own businesses.
Freed peasants were granted ownership of their houses and the plot of land they had worked on. The government then compensated landlords for land lost to peasants, on a very high valuation of the land. The local mir was made responsible for collecting and paying the redemption taxes, and thus exercised considerable control over each peasant.
State serfs were granted the same terms, but the transition period was 5 years not 2 and they generally received larger plots of lands.
Household serfs came out worst of all: Responses to emancipation Emancipation was both criticized and praised at the same time. However, other radicals hoping for greater change argued that the reforms pleased no-one.
Peasants tended to be dissatisfied with what they saw as the shortcomings of the deal - i.
There were in total incidents of peasants rioting following the Edict, with a notable example in Bezdna where a peasant urged his fellow serfs to seize land for themselves, and was then arrested and executed for his part in the disturbances that followed. Nobility resented their loss of social importance and felt betrayed that Alexander II had not fully consulted them in the process of drawing up his final draft.I have been accused of being a ‘black magician.’ No more foolish statement was ever made about me.
I despise the thing to such an extent that I can hardly believe in the existence of people so debased and idiotic as to practice it - Aleister Crowley (The Sunday Dispatch, ).
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Introduction. A prolonged two-front war was a nightmare scenario for German military strategists in Yet policies formulated by Bismarck in the s ensured that Germany did face threats on both its eastern and western frontiers.
The Tsardom of Russia (Russian: Русское царство, Russkoje tsarstvo later changed to Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Currency: Russian ruble.
Who is Natsar. Natsar Pharmaceuticals is an applied research and drug development company focused on the development of novel treatments for cancer and other diseases. Tsar Nicholas Ii. To what extent was the Tsar to blame for his downfall in March ?
Tsar Nicholas II was rightfully blamed for his downfall in March His revolting actions resulting in detrimental impacts on Russia made him solely to blame for his abdication.