This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract This study examines if religious participation in China is associated with cognitive functioning among the oldest-old and whether positive psychological feelings and leisure activity engagement explain the association, and gender moderates the association. Logistic regressions were used to analyze the Chinese Healthy Longevity Survey.
The regression coefficients indicate that in 10 of the 12 models, Black Caribbeans report significantly higher levels of religious participation than Whites.
There are no significant differences between Black Caribbeans and Whites with regard to church membership and frequency of other church activities. None of the regression models indicate that Whites report higher levels of religiosity than either Black Caribbeans Column 2 or African Americans Column 1.
Overall, across a number of measures and three dimensions, both African Americans and Black Caribbeans have comparable and consistently high levels of religious participation. The analysis found that for all 12 measures of religious participation, African Americans reported higher levels of religious participation than non-Hispanic whites.
This finding is consistent with historical and ethnographic research on the centrality of religion and religious institutions in the lives of African Americans Billingsley ; Lincoln and Mamiya It is also consistent with previous survey research indicating uniformly higher levels of organizational, non-organizational and subjective religious involvement among African Americans in comparison to whites Taylor et al.
This analysis showed that, similar to African Americans, Black Caribbeans have significantly higher levels of religious participation than whites 10 of the 12 regressions.
Church membership and frequency of participating in other church activities were the only two variables where no significant differences were found between Black Caribbeans and non-Hispanic whites.
Overall, the high levels of religious involvement among Caribbean Blacks are consistent with research on the importance of churches in Black Caribbean communities, as well research on the importance of religion among immigrants Waters ; Maynard-Reid ; Bashi The pattern of findings indicates that Caribbean Blacks and African Americans diverge with respect to four indicators—church membership rates, participation in church activities, reading religious materials, and requesting prayer from others.
One potential explanation as to why Black Caribbeans have lower rates of church membership and participation in church activities centers on the immigration experience. Recent immigrants may be less likely to have found a church home and thus less likely to be official church members.
This thesis is supported by other analyses of this data which finds that recent immigrants 0—5 years in U. There were no differences, however, in the likelihood of church membership between native born Caribbean Blacks and those who have immigrated to the United States 6 or more years ago.
This investment of time and energy may be particularly important task for Black Caribbeans who have emigrated from another country and are attempting to navigate completely new social and cultural environments. This is particularly important given the pivotal role of religious institutions in assisting Caribbean immigrants in relocation and resettlement, enhancing social and human capital in the form of organizational and personal resources, and helping individuals negotiate a largely unfamiliar social and cultural environment Waters ; Bashi Church support networks are particularly important when individuals are experiencing interpersonal conflicts with their own family members.
However, individuals who are not church members and participate in church activities on an infrequent basis may have fewer people from whom to request prayer.
Research on church support networks Taylor, Chatters and Levin indicates that social involvement and integration in these networks is associated with receiving assistance. However, as discussed earlier, Caribbean Blacks who have immigrated to the U.
As a consequence, they may not be fully invested in a religious community and not able to reap the social and support benefits of ongoing involvement.
In essence, the differences between Caribbean Blacks and African Americans in levels of requests for prayers from others may be a reflection of their different histories of involvement with and levels of social integration in a particular church community.
Alternatively, it may be the case that the basic nature of interactions within religious institutions and expectations regarding behaviors like requests for prayers from others, differ across the three groups. Research on congregational climate Pargament et al. It is interesting that although African Americans report more frequent prayer requests than either Caribbean Blacks or non-Hispanic whites, Caribbean Blacks report more frequent requests for prayer than do non-Hispanic whites.
The pattern of findings suggests that while African Americans and Caribbean Blacks are different from one another in regard to this behavior, they are both more likely than non-Hispanic whites to request prayer from others.
It may be that the very act of soliciting formal requests for the prayers of the church is a distinctive element of the Black worship experience, irrespective of ethnicity.
Alternatively, the fact that African Americans report the highest levels of requesting prayer from others may indicate that this is an especially prominent feature of African American worship communities that may reflect the communal practices of churches in historically Black denominations.The burgeoning field of gender and political behavior shows that the way in which ordinary citizens connect to the democratic process is gendered.
Gender differences in voting behavior and participation rates persist across democracies. The results of this study indicate both gender and ethnic differences in community service participation among working adults. The effects of gender and ethnicity, however, are not interactive; that is, the difference between females and males in rate of participation is consistent across ethnicities.
While it is difficult to know precisely whether or not religious beliefs differ in relation to males and females, it is evident that religious practice and participation does show relatively clear gender differences.
Religious participation is measured as the time the respondent engaged in any religious and spiritual activities, including both 1) attending religious services and 2) participating in any religious activities other than attending services. Nov 08, · The Gender Gap in Religion Around the World Women are generally more religious than men, particularly among Christians Standard lists of history’s most influential religious leaders – among them Abraham, Moses, Jesus, Muhammad, Siddhartha Gautama (the Buddha) – tend to be predominantly, if not exclusively, male.
In the present paper, we investigate how beliefs about religion and gender shape political participation in the United States. Organized religion provides its followers with a variety of civic skills and information shortcuts, and it also promotes psychological engagement with politics.