By Lori Yeni-Komshian Staff Writer After examining United States foreign policy and terrorism policy, it is evident that the challenges and threats that states face today are better served by recognizing that human security is in fact national security.
Quantitative studies have shown that trade fosters peace both directly, by reducing the risk of military conflict, and indirectly, by promoting prosperity and democracy.
Globalization can be understood as a process of market expansion and market integration, as the universalization of capitalism. After a short discussion of the political economy of globalization, I turn to the frequently overlooked security benefits of globalization. The diffusion of prosperity, free trade, and democratization is part of the story.
Quantitative studies provide a great deal of evidence for a causal chain running from free trade via prosperity and democracy to the avoidance of military conflict, as well as for another causal relationship between trade or economic openness and conflict avoidance. After a review of the quantitative literature and a discussion of some methodological issues, I illustrate the capitalist peace by historical examples and contemporary applications.
The Political Economy of Globalization The process of globalization had already begun in the late nineteenth century. Before World War I, trade and foreign investment were fairly globalized. Because of low political obstacles to international migration, labor markets actually were more globalized at the beginning of the twentieth century than at its end.
The two world wars and the Great Depression between them interrupted the process of global market integration for about half a century.
Thereafter, the process regained force and speed. Now, inexpensive, fast, and reliable communication and transportation enable producers of goods and some service providers in low-wage countries to challenge high-cost producers in rich countries on their home turf, but technological innovation resulting in falling prices and rising speed of intercontinental communication and transportation is not the only determinant of globalization.
Political decisions in rich and poor countries alike contribute strongly to globalization, too. Tariffs and, to a lesser degree, nontariff barriers to trade have been reduced. Many countries try to find and exploit their comparative advantage, to realize economies of scale and gains from trade by looking for buyers and sellers everywhere.
If trade between countries is truly free, then it promises to enrich all nations. In principle, globalization is the logical endpoint of the economic evolution that began when families switched from subsistence farming and household production to production for the market.
As long as globalization is not yet completed-and it certainly is not yet-gains from trade remain to be realized by further market expansion.
Because globalization adds to competitive pressure, however, it causes resentment, and because globalization springs from technological innovation and political decisions that promote free trade, these innovations and decisions attract resentment, too.
The world is already globalized enough that national resistance does limited damage. Free trade is vulnerable. If foreigners are perceived as a cause of the need to adjust, then attacking free trade becomes politically attractive.
After all, no politician benefits from the affection of foreigners who cannot vote. Of course, economists who insist on the benefits of free trade even if your trading partner does not practice free trade are right. Benefits include serving customers better at lower prices, but also faster growth of total factor productivity Edwards ; OECD The benefits of free trade, however, tend to be dispersed widely, whereas its costs for example, certain bankruptcies and job losses tend to be concentrated and more visible.
Therefore, the political case against free trade may become very strong despite the weakness of the economic argument. Who in rich Western societies is affected most by globalization?
Although unskilled labor is much less expensive in poor countries than in rich countries, this difference does not necessarily provide poor countries and poorly paid labor there with a competitive advantage.
Frequently, even unskilled labor is much more productive in rich countries than in poor ones. If the wage gap is neutralized by a countervailing productivity gap, unit labor costs are not affected by international differences in pay. The wages of low-skilled Western workers may suffer from downward pressure because their services have become more easily substitutable than previously Rodrik This process might result in growing volatility of earnings and income inequality, as in the United States, or high unemployment, as in much of Continental Europe.
Of course, unemployment is most likely to result from a combination of fierce international competition and rigid labor markets at home.
Otherwise, trade is more likely to affect the composition of employment than its amount Irwin Analysts dispute the degree to which either trade or technological progress has caused the predicament of unskilled labor in the West.
Although the majority view for example, Krugman blames most of it on technological progress, this conclusion is not entirely satisfying because technological progress is frequently inferred from estimated production-function residuals rather than from direct measurement.
An outspoken minority for example, Woodputs most of the blame on free trade and estimates that approximately 9 million manufacturing jobs might have been lost in rich countries by and many more by now. The complementary gain of 23 million jobs in poor countries may satisfy humanitarian impulses, but it does not help Western politicians to win elections.The European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment Latin America's human rights regime is centered in the ________.
23 CHAPTER II. CONCEPTS OF POVERTY Jonathan Morduch Introduction Nelson Mandela came out of retirement in February to speak on behalf of the Make Poverty History campaign in London, an effort to renew the global commitment to eliminating poverty worldwide.
The spread of corruption in traditional China is often connected to the Confucian concept of renzhi Non-structural corruption exists around the world, and refers to all activities that can be clearly defined as "illegal" or "criminal," mainly including different forms of graft: embezzlement, extortion, bribery etc.
Structural corruption. Poverty In a Confucian world, global poverty would not exist. This is not to say that living in a Confucian state would solve all of our world's problems, but idealistically the basis of Confucian goodness would prevent global poverty from even being a problem that we face.
- Confucianism Confucianism is the system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct.
In China, Confucius Is Politically Correct. Beijing embraces the ancient philosopher as a way to preserve its legitimacy.