Approximately 60 percent of women who experience post-abortion sequelae report suicidal ideation, with 28 percent actually attempting suicide, of which half attempted suicide two or more times. The suicide rate associated with birth, by contrast, was half the rate of all women and less than one-sixth the rate of suicide among women who had abortions. Linking these records to death certificates, the researchers found that women who had state-funded abortions were 2.
By Honor Whiteman When we wake up in the morning, many of us reach for a coffee to kick-start our day. According to the International Coffee Organization, approximately 1.
The US Food and Drug Administration FDA state that the average amount of caffeine consumed in the US is approximately mg per person per day - the equivalent to between two and four cups of coffee.
This is considered to be a moderate caffeine intake, which according to many studies, can promote a variety of health benefits. But some studies claim otherwise, even suggesting that one or two cups of coffee a day may negatively impact our health.
So, what are we to believe? We analyze the potential health benefits, as well as the negative side effects of caffeine consumption.
Caffeine is a natural stimulant The main ingredient in coffee is caffeine - a compound that naturally derives from over 60 different plant sources, including coffee beans, tea leaves, cacao seeds and cola nut seeds. Caffeine acts as a stimulant by activating the central nervous system.
It can combat tiredness and improve concentration and focus. According to the University of Michigan Health Servicethe stimulating effects of caffeine can start as early as 15 minutes after consumption and last up to 6 hours.
Other than coffee, caffeine is commonly consumed through tea, soft drinks - particularly energy drinks - and chocolate.
It is also found in some prescription and non-prescription drugs, such as cold, allergy and pain medication. Some studies have suggested that drinking three or four cups of coffee a day may reduce the risk of liver, mouth and throat cancer.
Caffeine consumption has also been associated with positive effects on the brain. Last year, a study from the Harvard School of Public Health suggested that drinking between two and four cups of coffee a day may reduce suicide risk in adultswhile more recent research found that ingesting mg of caffeine each day may boost long-term memory.
Meredith, postdoctoral research fellow at The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, told Medical News Today that, perhaps due to widespread consumption, many of us forget that caffeine is a psychoactive substance - a drug that crosses the blood-brain barrier to stimulate the central nervous system.
In fact, caffeine is the most commonly used psychoactive substance in the world. Moreover, the vast majority of caffeine consumers use the substance regularly without apparent harm. These factors likely contribute to the perspective that caffeine is a benign substance that everyone can use without suffering any negative consequences.
The Mayo Clinic state that consuming more than mg of caffeine a day may lead to insomnianervousness, restlessness, irritability, an upset stomacha fast heartbeat and even muscle tremors.
However, previous research has linked even moderate amounts of caffeine to negative health effects. Last year, Medical News Today reported on a study suggesting that consuming mg of caffeine a day during pregnancy may increase the risk of low birth weight babieswhile other research suggests that drinking four cups of coffee a day may increase the risk of early death.
Effects of caffeine vary from person to person But Meredith told us that the effects of caffeine can vary in each individual, which may explain why there are mixed messages surrounding whether caffeine is good or bad for us. For example, he said that individuals with anxiety disorders are more susceptible to the anxiogenic effects of the compound.Features assignments and exercises to meet the changing needs of school counselors and school social workers.
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The first time Ashley McGuire had a baby, she and her husband had to wait 20 weeks to learn its sex. By her third, they found out at 10 weeks with a blood test.