Dreaming in Epistemology a. In his Meditations on First Philosophy he wanted to find out what we can believe with certainty and thereby claim as knowledge. He begins by stating that he is certain of being seated by the fire in front of him. He then dismisses the idea that this belief could be certain because he has been deceived before in dreams where he has similarly been convinced that he was seated by a fire, only to wake and discover that he was only dreaming that he was seated by a fire.
Other aspects, such as atypical eating, are also common but are not essential for diagnosis. Noted autistic Temple Grandin described her inability to understand the social communication of neurotypicalsor people with normal neural developmentas leaving her feeling "like an anthropologist on Mars".
Autistic infants show less attention to social stimuli, smile and look at others less often, and respond less to their own name. Autistic toddlers differ more strikingly from social norms ; for example, they have less eye contact and turn-takingand do not have the ability to use simple movements to express themselves, such as pointing at things.
However, they do form attachments to their primary caregivers. Making and maintaining friendships often proves to be difficult for those with autism. For them, the quality of friendships, not the number of friends, predicts how lonely they feel.
Functional friendships, such as those resulting in invitations to parties, may affect the quality of life more deeply.
The limited data suggest that, in children with intellectual disability, autism is associated with aggression, destruction of property, and tantrums. In the second and third years, children with autism have less frequent and less diverse babbling, consonants, words, and word combinations; their gestures are less often integrated with words.
Children with autism are less likely to make requests or share experiences, and are more likely to simply repeat others' words echolalia   or reverse pronouns.
Both autistic groups performed worse than controls at complex language tasks such as figurative language, comprehension and inference. As people are often sized up initially from their basic language skills, these studies suggest that people speaking to autistic individuals are more likely to overestimate what their audience comprehends.
Repetitive movements, such as hand flapping, head rolling, or body rocking. Time-consuming behaviors intended to reduce anxiety that an individual feels compelled to perform repeatedly or according to rigid rules, such as placing objects in a specific order, checking things, or hand washing.
Resistance to change; for example, insisting that the furniture not be moved or refusing to be interrupted. Unvarying pattern of daily activities, such as an unchanging menu or a dressing ritual.
This is closely associated with sameness and an independent validation has suggested combining the two factors.
Interests or fixations that are abnormal in theme or intensity of focus, such as preoccupation with a single television program, toy, or game. Behaviors such as eye-poking, skin-pickinghand-biting and head-banging. Autistic individuals may have symptoms that are independent of the diagnosis, but that can affect the individual or the family.
Selectivity is the most common problem, although eating rituals and food refusal also occur;  this does not appear to result in malnutrition. Although some children with autism also have gastrointestinal symptomsthere is a lack of published rigorous data to support the theory that children with autism have more or different gastrointestinal symptoms than usual;  studies report conflicting results, and the relationship between gastrointestinal problems and ASD is unclear.
However, they reported lower levels of closeness and intimacy than siblings of children with Down syndrome ; siblings of individuals with ASD have greater risk of negative well-being and poorer sibling relationships as adults.
Awakenings has 9, ratings and reviews. William2 said: The crux of the book is the work Sacks began in the mids with dozens of post-encephalit /5(K). Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body. It is an amine synthesized by removing a carboxyl group from a molecule of its precursor chemical L-DOPA, which is synthesized in the brain and kidneys. Dopamine . Awakenings Movie Report · Neurologist- a neurologist is a doctor who has trained in the diagnosis and treatment of nervous system disorders, including diseases of the brain, spinal cord, nerves and muscles. Neurologists perform neurological examinations of the nerves of the head and neck; muscle strength and movement; balance, ambulation, and reflexes; and sensation, memory, speech, language.
Causes of autism It has long been presumed that there is a common cause at the genetic, cognitive, and neural levels for autism's characteristic triad of symptoms. Typically, autism cannot be traced to a Mendelian single-gene mutation or to a single chromosome abnormalityand none of the genetic syndromes associated with ASDs have been shown to selectively cause ASD.
Some such as the MMR vaccine have been completely disproven. This has led to unsupported theories blaming vaccine "overload"a vaccine preservativeor the MMR vaccine for causing autism.
How autism occurs is not well understood.
Its mechanism can be divided into two areas: It is not known whether early overgrowth occurs in all children with autism. It seems to be most prominent in brain areas underlying the development of higher cognitive specialization.
An excess of neurons that causes local overconnectivity in key brain regions. Children with autism have been found by researchers to have inflammation of both the peripheral and central immune systems as indicated by increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and significant activation of microglia.
It is thought that activation of a pregnant mother's immune system such as from environmental toxicants or infection can contribute to causing autism through causing a disruption of brain development.
The MNS operates when an animal performs an action or observes another animal perform the same action. The MNS may contribute to an individual's understanding of other people by enabling the modeling of their behavior via embodied simulation of their actions, intentions, and emotions.
In people with autism the two networks are not negatively correlated in time, suggesting an imbalance in toggling between the two networks, possibly reflecting a disturbance of self-referential thought. Hypo-connectivity seems to dominate, especially for interhemispheric and cortico-cortical functional connectivity.
The first category focuses on deficits in social cognition. Simon Baron-Cohen 's empathizing—systemizing theory postulates that autistic individuals can systemize—that is, they can develop internal rules of operation to handle events inside the brain—but are less effective at empathizing by handling events generated by other agents.
An extension, the extreme male brain theory, hypothesizes that autism is an extreme case of the male brain, defined psychometrically as individuals in whom systemizing is better than empathizing.
The theory of mind hypothesis is supported by the atypical responses of children with autism to the Sally—Anne test for reasoning about others' motivations,  and the mirror neuron system theory of autism described in Pathophysiology maps well to the hypothesis."Unlike the movie of Awakenings, where I was portrayed living at some distance away from the hospital, I virtually lived with the patients, spending 16 hours a day with them.
Oliver Sacks Reaches into History for Latest Diagnosis St. Paul, Minn. – Celebrated neurologist Oliver Sacks combines his loves of chemistry and neurology in his latest article, which explores the mind of 18th Century British chemist Henry Cavendish. OLIVER SACKS is a professor of neurology and psychiatry at Columbia University Medical Center and the author of many books, including "Musicophilia, The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat, "and" Awakenings" (which inspired the Oscar-nominated film).
Philosophy of Dreaming. According to Owen Flanagan (), there are four major philosophical questions about dreaming: 1. How can I be sure I am not always dreaming? Sacks served as an instructor and later clinical professor of neurology at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine from to , and also held an appointment at New .
The movie Awakenings starring Robin Williams and Robert De Niro portrays the true story of a doctor named Dr. Malcolm Sayer, and the events of the summer of at a psychiatric hospital in New York.
Dr. Malcolm Sayer, who is a research physician, is confronted with a number of patients who had each been afflicted with a devastating disease.