See Article History Latin American art, artistic traditions that developed in Mesoamerica, Central Americaand South America after contact with the Spanish and the Portuguese beginning in andrespectively, and continuing to the present. This article will not discuss the art of non-Iberian colonial holdings that began late in the 16th century and culminated in the 17th; for these territories, see individual country articles e. For more technical explorations of media, see individual media articles e. The architecture of the region is treated in a separate article; see Latin American architecture.
The study of Latin America and Latin American art is more relevant today than ever. In the United States, the burgeoning population of Latinos—people of Latin American descent—and consequently the rise of Spanish and Spanglish speakers, Latino musical genres, literature, and visual arts, require that we better understand the cultural origins of these diverse communities.
Even beyond our borders, Latin American countries continue to exert influence over political and economic policies, while their artistic traditions are everyday made more and more accessible at cultural institutions like art museums, which regularly exhibit the work of Latin American artists.
In many ways, Latin American and Latino culture is an inescapable reality, thus it is up to us, for the benefits of appreciation and integration, to tackle the difficult question of what it means to be from Latin America. For many of us Latin America is not an entirely foreign concept, in fact our knowledge of it is most likely defined by a particular country, food, music, or artist, and sadly, it is also sometimes clouded by cultural stereotypes.
What many of us often overlook, is the diversity of what it means to be Latin American and Latino. Interestingly, Latin America is not Introduction to latin american art different from the United States as we tend to think, since we both share in the history of conquest and imperialism, albeit from different perspectives.
Thus the study of Latin American art should not necessarily be thought of as a narrative that is entirely separate from that of the United States, but rather as one that is shared. Latin America broadly refers to the countries in the Americas including the Caribbean whose national language is derived from Latin.
These include countries where the languages of Spanish, Portuguese, and French are spoken. Latin America is therefore a historical term rooted in the colonial era, when these languages were introduced to the area by their respective European colonizers.
It gained currency during the twentieth century when Mesoamerican, Central American, Caribbean, and South American countries sought to culturally distance themselves from North America, and more specifically from the United States.
Today, Latin America is considered by many scholars to be an imprecise and highly problematic term, since it prescribes a collective entity to a conglomerate of countries that remain vastly different. In the case of countries that share the same language their cultural bond is much stronger, since despite their potentially different pre-conquest origins, they continue to share collective colonial histories and contemporary postcolonial predicaments.
In addition to these Latin-derived languages, indigenous tongues like Quechua, spoken by more than 8 million people in South America, are still preserved today. When discussing countries such as the French-speaking Haiti and Spanish-speaking Mexico, the similarities become much harder to articulate.
For the purposes of clarity, the term Latin America is used loosely, whether referring to the pre- or post-conquest era. It is anachronistic to discuss a Latin American artistic tradition before independence, and as a result pre-Columbian and colonial art are discussed according to specific regions.
Contemporary artists working in a globalized art world and often times outside of their country of origin give new meaning to what it means to not necessarily be a Latin American artist, but rather a global one. Geography Deity Figure Zemic.
After colonization, however, the borders shifted somewhat with the creation of the viceroyalties of New Spain, Peru, New Granada, La Plata, and Brazil. The Caribbean is sometimes considered part of Central America or at times entirely excluded. Lastly, it is important to note that when discussing specific Latin American countries, the geographical scope in question will correspond to the current, rather than former borders.
While these linguistic and geographical parameters lend clarity to the study of Latin American art, they often obscure cultural differences that are not border specific. The coastal cultures of Colombia and Venezuela for instance, are closer to those of the Caribbean than to their mainland counterparts.
This is reflected not only in the similar climate, diet, and customs of these particular areas, but also in their artistic production. The islands of the Caribbean, however, are also a geographical region delineated by the Caribbean Seathus the distinction between regions depends on how and where you draw the borders—reminding us of the flexibility and variety of labels that can be employed to describe the same region.
At impressive heights and in snow-covered peaks, the Andean cultures of South America share irrigation techniques, textile traditions, and native languages, such as Quechua, the former language of the Incas that is today spoken by millions, that continue to this day.
Just these two landmarks, without mentioning the Pacific and Atlantic coastal cultures of South America, reveal the geographical, and thus cultural diversity of the area. Latin America is a useful, but by no means perfect term to describe a vast expanse of land that is historically, culturally, and geographically diverse.
From networks of exchange to a global trade network From as early as the pre-Columbian era, there existed networks of exchange among the early civilizations of Latin America, through trade networks that stretched from Mesoamerica to South America. Limited by technology and transportation, forms of indigenous contact were mainly restricted to the American continent.
Starting in the sixteenth century, and now exposed to Africa, through the Atlantic Slave Trade, and Asia, through the trade network of the Manila Galleon, Latin America entered into an era of global contact that continues to this day. The Manila Galleon trade brought Japanese screens to Mexico inspiring locally made objects like this.
During the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, namely as a result of socio-political transformations, migration, exile, and diaspora the dispersion of people from their homelandtravel became a trademark of modern art, further contributing to the internationalism of Latin American art.
As a result of these networks of exchange, which began before colonization and continue to this day, Latin American art is difficult to categorize.
It is in fact hybrid and pluralistic, the product of multi-cultural conditions. This distinction has plagued Latin American art, since—except for pre-Columbian art—it mostly fits in the category of Western art history.
This categorization however, is debatable, with some scholars positing that Latin American art is a non-Western artistic tradition that owes more to its pre-Columbian roots, than to its European influences.Latin American art - Postindependence, c. –the present: At the turn of the 19th century, a variety of conditions in Spanish and Portuguese America inspired fights for independence.
In the second half of the 18th century, the Spanish Bourbon kings had increasingly decentralized the governance of the colonies, which brought a new .
Latin American and Caribbean art and visual culture from independence to present. Examines cultural diversity of these regions through their rich artistic production, from fine arts such as painting, sculpture, and drawing to popular forms such as prints and posters, ceramics, textiles, design, and even sports.
Introduction to Latin American Art. Length: words. Let us write you a custom essay sample on. Introduction to Latin American Art. For Only $/page.
ORDER NOW. Joaquin – Torres Garcia became part of the avant-garde artistic milieu and adopted the art Nouveau and Symbolist styles, which he cultivated from Torres-Garcia. Latin American culture is the formal or informal expression of the people of Latin America and includes both high culture (literature and high art) and popular culture (music, folk art, and dance) as well as religion and other customary practices..
Definitions of Latin America vary. From a cultural perspective, Latin America generally includes . The term "Latin America" primarily refers to the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking countries in the New yunusemremert.com the arrival of Europeans in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, the region was home to many indigenous peoples, a number of which had advanced civilizations, most notably from North to South; the Olmec, Maya, Muisca .
This course is designed to introduce students to Latin American art from the pre-Columbian period to the present. It will cover the arts of ancient civilizations including the Olmec, Maya, Aztec, Moche, and Inca, as well as the colonial, modern, and contemporary arts of Latin America and the Latino/a diaspora.