The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital.
Advanced warnings about the impending bombings[ edit ] In JulyRussian journalist Aleksandr Zhilin, writing in the Moskovskaya pravdawarned that there would be terrorist attacks in Moscow organised by the government.
Using a leaked Kremlin document as evidence, he added that the motive would be to undermine the opponents of the Russian President Boris Yeltsin.
However, this warning was ignored. His source was an officer of the Russian Four aspects in leadership essay intelligence GRU. According to information from Rostov-on-Don, an apartment building in the city of Volgodonsk was blown up last night. When the Volgodonsk bombing happened on 16 September, Vladimir Zhirinovsky demanded the following day an explanation in the Duma, but Seleznev turned his microphone off.
How should we interpret this? The State Duma knows that the apartment block was destroyed on Monday, and it has indeed been blown up on Thursday [same week] He said that the explosions in Buynaksk and Moscow were carried out by his organisation.
He said that he, together with Krymshamkhalov and Batchayev, prepared the explosives, transported them to Volgodonskand randomly picked the apartment building on Octyabrskoye Shosse to blow it up. Investigations[ edit ] Criminal investigation and court ruling[ edit ] The official investigation was concluded in According to the Russian State Prosecutor office,   all apartment bombings were executed under command of ethnic Karachay Achemez Gochiyayev and planned by Ibn al-Khattab and Abu Omar al-SaifArab militants fighting in Chechnya on the side of Chechen insurgents.
According to investigators, the explosives were prepared at a fertiliser factory in Urus-Martan Chechnya, by "mixing aluminium powder, nitre and sugar in a concrete mixer",  or by also putting their RDX and TNT.
Another conspirator, Ruslan Magayayev, leased a KamAZ truck in which the sacks were stored for two months. After everything was planned, the participants were organised into several groups which then transported the explosives to different cities.
En route, they were protected from possible complications by an accomplice, Khakim Abayev,  who accompanied the trailer in another car. The explosives were left in a warehouse in Ulitsa Krasnodonskaya, which was leased by pseudo-Laipanov Gochiyayev. Next followed the explosions at the former two addresses.
The explosion at 16 Borisovskiye Prudy was prevented. However, the bombers parked on an adjacent street instead and blew up only one building. At the trial they complained that Khattab had not given them all the money he owed them.
The court accused Khalid Khuguyev Russian: For instance, Dekkushev acknowledged that he knew the explosives he transported were to be used for an act of terror. Dekkushev also confirmed Gochiyaev's role in the attacks.
Krymshakhalov was apprehended and extradicted to Moscow. According to the official investigation, the following people either delivered explosives, stored them, or harboured other suspects: After this meeting, Trepashkin began working with the commission.
Trepashkin claimed to have found that the basement of one of the bombed buildings was rented by FSB officer Vladimir Romanovich and that the latter was witnessed by several people. Trepashkin also investigated a letter attributed to Achemez Gochiyayev and found that the alleged assistant of Gochiyayev who arranged the delivery of sacks might have been Kapstroi vice president Alexander Karmishin, a resident of Vyazma.
Trepashkin wrote that he learned about the story at a meeting with several RUOP officers in the year They claimed that their colleagues could present eyewitness accounts in a court. They offered a videocassette with evidence against the RDX dealers. Mr Trepashkin did not publicise the meeting fearing for lives of the witnesses and their families.
The talk with the residents of the Ryazan apartment building along with FSB public relations director Alexander Zdanovich and Ryazan branch head Alexander Sergeyev was filmed few days earlier.An evaluation system that fosters teacher learning will differ from one whose aim is to measure teacher competence.
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