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This statement responds to the growing educational concerns about plagiarism in four ways: The statement is intended to provide helpful suggestions and clarifications so that instructors, administrators, and students can work together more effectively in support of excellence in teaching and learning.
In instructional settings, plagiarism is a multifaceted attribution definition writing activities ethically complex problem. However, if any definition of plagiarism is to be helpful to administrators, faculty, and students, it needs to be as simple and direct as possible within the context for which it is intended.
This definition applies to texts published in print or on-line, to manuscripts, and to the work of other student writers. Most current discussions of plagiarism fail to distinguish between: Such discussions conflate plagiarism with the misuse of sources.
Ethical writers make every effort to acknowledge sources fully and appropriately in accordance with the contexts and genres of their writing. Students may fear failure or fear taking risks in their own work.
Instructors and institutions may fail to report cheating when it does occur, or may not enforce appropriate penalties. These failures are largely the result of failures in prior teaching and learning: The following conditions and practices may result in texts that falsely appear to represent plagiarism as we have defined it: Students may not know how to integrate the ideas of others and document the sources of those ideas appropriately in their texts.
College instructors may assume that students have already learned appropriate academic conventions of research and documentation. What are our Shared Responsibilities? Just as students must live up to their responsibility to behave ethically and honestly as learners, teachers must recognize that they can encourage or discourage plagiarism not just attribution definition writing activities policy and admonition, but also in the way they structure assignments and in the processes they use to help students define and gain interest in topics developed for papers and projects.
Such an understanding involves: Assembling and analyzing a set of sources that they have themselves determined are relevant to the issues they are investigating; Acknowledging clearly when and how they are drawing on the ideas or phrasings of others; Learning the conventions for citing documents and acknowledging sources appropriate to the field they are studying; Consulting their instructors when they are unsure about how to acknowledge the contributions of others to their thought and writing.
Faculty need to design contexts and assignments for learning that encourage students not simply to recycle information but to investigate and analyze its sources. Administrators need to foster a program- or campus-wide climate that values academic honesty.
Publicizing policies and expectations for conducting ethical research, as well as procedures for investigating possible cases of academic dishonesty and its penalties; Providing support services for example, writing centers or Web pages for students who have questions about how to cite sources; Supporting faculty and student discussions of issues concerning academic honesty, research ethics, and plagiarism; Recognizing and improving upon working conditions, such as high teacher-student ratios, that reduce opportunities for more individualized instruction and increase the need to handle papers and assignments too quickly and mechanically; Providing faculty development opportunities for instructors to reflect on and, if appropriate, change the ways they work with writing in their courses.
Understanding, augmenting, engaging in dialogue with, and challenging the work of others are part of becoming an effective citizen in a complex society. Plagiarism does not simply devalue the institution and the degree it offers; it hurts the inquirer, who has avoided thinking independently and has lost the opportunity to participate in broader social conversations.
Include in your syllabus a policy for using sources, and discuss it in your course. Define a policy that clearly explains the consequences of both plagiarism such as turning in a paper known to be written by someone else and the misuse or inaccurate citation of sources.
Improve the Design and Sequence of Assignments Design assignments that require students to explore a subject in depth.
Start building possible topics early. Good writing reflects a thorough understanding of the topic being addressed or researched. Develop schedules for students that both allow them time to explore and support them as they work toward defined topics. Conferences with students sometimes held in the library or computer resource center are invaluable for enabling them to refine their focus and begin their inquiry.
Support each step of the research process. Students often have little experience planning and conducting research. Make the research process, and technology used for it, visible. Attend to conventions of different genres of writing. However, students might not be as aware of these differences.
Attend to Sources and the Use of Reading Ask students to draw on and document a variety of sources.
Design activities that help students to become familiar with these conventions and make informed choices about when and where to employ them.
Show students how to evaluate their sources. Provide opportunities for students to discuss the quality of the content and context of their sources, through class discussions, electronic course management programs or Internet chat spaces, or reflective assignments.
Develop reading-related heuristics and activities that will help students to read carefully and to think about how or whether to use that reading in their research projects.Under the following terms: Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were yunusemremert.com may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
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|Working Group II||It was released in four parts between September and November|
|Working Group I||Publishing What is now called "post-process" research demonstrates that it is seldom accurate to describe these "stages" as fixed steps in a straightforward process. Rather, they are more accurately conceptualized as overlapping parts of a complex whole or parts of a recursive process that are repeated multiple times throughout the writing process.|
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