An introduction to the history of the marketing in japan

Theodoros II 3 comments Very few people and even fewer brands have managed to become synonymous with pop culture in the 20th century.

An introduction to the history of the marketing in japan

How has it come to be used so widely? And what is its future? Untold story of QR Code development QR Code as a response to the needs of the times In the s when Japan entered its high economic growth period, supermarkets selling a wide range of commodities from foodstuff to clothing began to spring up in many neighborhoods.

Cash registers that were then used at checkout counters in these stores required the price to be keyed in manually. Because of this, many cashiers suffered from numbness in the wrist and carpal tunnel syndrome.

An introduction to the history of the marketing in japan

Subsequently the POS system was developed, in which the price of an item of merchandise was displayed on the cash register automatically when the barcode on the item was scanned by an optical sensor, and information on the item was sent to a computer at the same time. As the use of barcodes spread, however, their limitations became apparent as well.

The most prominent was the fact that a barcode can only hold 20 alphanumeric characters or so of information.

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Development team made up of just two members Masahiro Hara Looking back on those days, Masahiro Hara in charge of the development of the QR Code then remembers that people who were developing 2D codes at other companies were all obsessed with packing as much information as possible into their codes.

With barcodes, information is coded in one direction one dimension only. With 2D codes, on the other hand, information is coded in two directions: He dared to try this with only one other person as his team member. The greatest challenge for the team was how to make reading their code as fast as possible.

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Section 1 : Untold story of QR Code development Business historian Michael A. Cusumano details the spectacular developments in Japanese productivity, quality, and process flexibility that have occurred over the past thirty years.
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One day, he hit on the idea that their problem might be solved by adding positional information indicating the existence of a code to be read.

This was how the position detecting pattern made up of square marks came into being. By incorporating these marks into their code, high-speed reading became possible.

So far so good, but why did the marks have to be squares rather than any other shape? To avoid this type of erroneous reading, their position detection patterns had to be truly unique. After mulling over this problem thoroughly, they decided to do an exhaustive survey of the ratio of white to black areas in pictures and symbols printed on fliers, magazines, cardboard boxes and so on after reducing them to patterns with black and white areas.

They continued the task of surveying innumerable examples of printed matter all day long for days on end.

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Eventually, they came up with the least used ratio of black and white areas on printed matter. This ratio was 1: This was how the widths of the black and white areas in the position detection patterns were decided upon.

A year and a half after the development project was initiated and after innumerable and repeated trial and error, a QR Code capable of coding about 7, numerals with the additional capability to code Kanji characters was finally created. This code could not only hold a great deal of information, but it could also be read more than 10 times faster than other codes.

The QR in the name stands for quick response, expressing the development concept for the code, whose focus was placed on high-speed reading. When it was announced, however, even Hara, one of the original developers of the code, could not be sure whether it would actually be accepted as a two-dimensional code to replace barcodes.

He had confidence in the performance of the code, however, and was eager to make the rounds of companies and industry organizations concerned to introduce it in the hope that it would become known and used by as many people as possible.

Also, in response to a newly-emerging societal trend where people demanded that the industries' production processes be made transparent partly to make products traceable, food, pharmaceutical and contact lens companies began to use the code to control their merchandise.

The QR Code became an indispensable medium that could store a great deal of information on these processes. There was still another factor that contributed greatly to spreading the use of the code, and that was DENSO WAVE's decision to make the specifications of the QR Code publicly available so that anyone could use it freely.

This policy was in place from the very beginning of the code development, honoring the developers' intent that the QR Code could be used by as many people as possible.Jessica Ellsworth Food and Drug Law Winter Term Professor Peter Hutt The History of Organic Food Regulation I. Introduction From its beginnings on individual unregulated farms to its growth through local and regional networks.

Japan is a society in crisis. It is a culture that is highly resistant to change; a society that places a high value on each member’s conformity within highly structured layers of Japanese society. An introduction, in text and illustrations, to the geography, history, economy, government, culture, and people of Japan.

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An introduction to the history of the marketing in japan

Japan’s largest-selling brand of premium cars, Lexus is the luxury vehicle division of the Toyota Motor history of Lexus originated from a covert sedan project, a challenge issued by the founder Eiji Toyoda to create the world’s best car.

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An Introduction To The History Of The Marketing In Japan