States have adopted laws that require drivers to use hands-free devices. The study found that females are more likely than males to engage in mobile phone use while driving. Also, more experienced drivers are less likely to engage in distracted driving.
Questionnaires were sent todrivers and analysis was done on the 36, who responded. The questionnaire asked about driving habits, risk exposure, collisions over the past 24 months, socio-demographic information, and cell phone use. Questionnaires were supported with data from cell phone companies and accident records held by police.
The study found that the overall relative risk RR of having an accident for cell phone users when compared to non-cell phone users averaged 1. When adjusted for distance driven per year and other crash risk exposures, RR was 1.
They also found that increased cell phone use correlated with an increase in RR. When the same data were reanalyzed using a Bayesian approach, the calculated RR of 0.
When the data were reanalyzed using case-crossover analysis, RR was calculated at a much higher 5. The authors expressed concern that misclassification of phone calls due to reporting errors of the exact time of the collisions was a major source of bias with all case-crossover analysis of this issue.
In in the US, there was a reported 5, people killed by distracted drivers. Of those were considered to be killed by drivers distracted by cell phones. Of distraction-related accidents, cell phone use may range from 1.
A study by the University of Utah psychology department measured response time, following distance, and driving speed of a control group, subjects at the legal blood alcohol content BAC limit of 0. As the study notes; " Across these three studies, participants performed in both baseline and cell phone conditions.
Two of the participants in our studies were involved in an accident in baseline conditions, whereas 10 participants were involved in an accident when they were conversing on a cell phone.
After controlling for driving difficulty and time on task, the study concluded that cell phone drivers exhibited greater impairment than drunk drivers. A key finding was that: Arguments from increase in mobile subscription[ edit ] Hands-free car kit In the US, the number of cell phone subscribers has increased by 1, In approximately the same period the number of crashes has fallen by 0.
Those violating the ban usually face fines and points on their licence. The United Kingdom[ edit ] In the UK using a mobile phone while driving has been illegal sinceunless it is in a handsfree kit . There was a tendency for motorists behaving and becoming significantly more compliant initially with the introduction of the updated laws, only to later to resume their ordinary habits.
The fine increase was not at all effective at stopping motorists from using their phones while driving. In the same year statistics revealed that only 30, drivers were given a Fixed penalty notice FPN for the offence, compared toin .
The increased percentage of people using their phones can be attributed in part to the growing affordability of smartphones. Possibly the most important factor was the increasing lack of enforcement of the ban by the police.
Both increased smartphone sales and lack of enforcement created a situation where in which it was acceptable to use your phone while driving again, yet having being illegal for over 13 years . This would mean that motorists who perhaps already had 6 points on their driving licence, would be disqualified from driving for 6 months if caught.
The biggest detriment would be for newly qualified drivers who have passed their driving tests within the last two years .
New drivers have conditions on their licence for two years after passing their test in the UK, with the most significant being that if they gain 6 penalty points on their licence they have to fully retake their driving test.
Studies will continue to monitor whether or not this habit persist among motorists as it has done throughout the past, while the British government aims to make picking up your phone as socially unacceptable as drink driving .
Comparisons with passenger conversations[ edit ] The scientific literature is mixed on the dangers of talking on a cell phone versus those of talking with a passenger. The common conception is that passengers are able to better regulate conversation based on the perceived level of danger, therefore the risk is negligible.
Measurement of attention levels showed that subjects were four times more distracted while preparing to speak or speaking than when they were listening. The number of questions asked averaged slightly higher for mobile phone conversations, although results were not constant across road types and largely influenced by a large number of questions on the urban roads.
Drivers holding conversations on cell phones were four times more likely to miss the highway exit than those with passengers, and drivers conversing with passengers showed no statistically significant difference from lone drivers in the simulator.
In contrast, the University of Illinois meta-analysis concluded that passenger conversations were just as costly to driving performance as cell phone ones.
Texting while driving The scientific literature on the dangers of driving while sending a text message from a mobile phone, or texting while drivingis limited. A simulation study at the Monash University Accident Research Centre has provided strong evidence that both retrieving and, in particular, sending text messages has a detrimental effect on a number of critical driving tasks.
Specifically, negative effects were seen in detecting and responding correctly to road signs, detecting hazards, time spent with eyes off the road, and only for sending text messages lateral position. Surprisingly, mean speed, speed variability, lateral position when receiving text messages, and following distance showed no difference.A meta-analysis in the journal Human Factors updates what we know about using cell phones while driving.
The analysis considered only experimental studies, no surveys or epidemiological reports. They looked at studies examining driving performance, in traffic situations or scenarios, and more specifically at driving while talking – that.
Cell Phones while Driving essay writing service, custom Cell Phones while Driving papers, term papers, free Cell Phones while Driving samples, research papers, help. Crash Risk of Cell Phone Use While Driving: A Case – Crossover Analysis of Naturalistic Driving Data This report investigates the relationship between using a cell phone while driving and the risk of being involved in a crash by comparing cell phone use immediately prior to crashes versus during ordinary driving by the same drivers using in-vehicle video from a large study.
Talking on a cell phone may be less distracting than some other activities people may engage in while driving, Froetscher admits, but she points out that the use of cell phones and texting devices. Mobile phone use while driving is common, but it is widely considered dangerous due to its potential for causing distracted driving and accidents.
Due to the number of accidents that are related to conducting calls on a phone and texting while driving, some jurisdictions have made the use of calling on a phone while driving illegal.
Many jurisdictions have enacted laws to ban handheld mobile. Driving while using a handsfree cellular device is not safer than using a hand held cell phone, as concluded by case-crossover studies, epidemiological, simulation, and meta-analysis.
  The increased cognitive workload involved in holding a conversation, not the use of .