News magazine shows the beginnings of American containment policy. Communism was on the march.
Visit Website Did you know? The term 'cold war' first appeared in a essay by the English writer George Orwell called 'You and the Atomic Bomb. The Atomic Age The containment strategy also provided the rationale for an unprecedented arms buildup in the United States.
To that end, the report called for a four-fold increase in defense spending. Visit Website In particular, American officials encouraged the development of atomic weapons like the ones that had ended World War II.
In response, President Truman announced that the United States would build an even more destructive atomic weapon: As a result, the stakes of the Cold War were perilously high. The first H-bomb test, in the Eniwetok atoll in the Marshall Islands, showed just how fearsome the nuclear age could be.
It created a square-mile fireball that vaporized an island, blew a huge hole in the ocean floor and had the power to destroy half of Manhattan. Subsequent American and Soviet tests spewed poisonous radioactive waste into the atmosphere. The ever-present threat of nuclear annihilation had a great impact on American domestic life as well.
People built bomb shelters in their backyards. They practiced attack drills in schools and other public places. The s and s saw an epidemic of popular films that horrified moviegoers with depictions of nuclear devastation and mutant creatures.
In the United States, space was seen as the next frontier, a logical extension of the grand American tradition of exploration, and it was crucial not to lose too much ground to the Soviets.
In addition, this demonstration of the overwhelming power of the R-7 missile—seemingly capable of delivering a nuclear warhead into U.
Inthe U. Army under the direction of rocket scientist Wernher von Braun, and what came to be known as the Space Race was underway. That same year, President Dwight Eisenhower signed a public order creating the National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAa federal agency dedicated to space exploration, as well as several programs seeking to exploit the military potential of space.
Still, the Soviets were one step ahead, launching the first man into space in April Kennedy made the bold public claim that the U. Soviets, in turn, were pictured as the ultimate villains, with their massive, relentless efforts to surpass America and prove the power of the communist system.
The committee began a series of hearings designed to show that communist subversion in the United States was alive and well. In HollywoodHUAC forced hundreds of people who worked in the movie industry to renounce left-wing political beliefs and testify against one another.
More than people lost their jobs.
Soon, other anticommunist politicians, most notably Senator Joseph McCarthyexpanded this probe to include anyone who worked in the federal government.
Thousands of federal employees were investigated, fired and even prosecuted. The Cold War Abroad The fight against subversion at home mirrored a growing concern with the Soviet threat abroad. Many American officials feared this was the first step in a communist campaign to take over the world and deemed that nonintervention was not an option.
Truman sent the American military into Korea, but the war dragged to a stalemate and ended in Other international disputes followed.
In the early s, President Kennedy faced a number of troubling situations in his own hemisphere. However, what was intended to be a brief military action spiraled into a year conflict. The Close of the Cold War Almost as soon as he took office, President Richard Nixon began to implement a new approach to international relations.
To that end, he encouraged the United Nations to recognize the communist Chinese government and, after a trip there inbegan to establish diplomatic relations with Beijing.
Inhe and Soviet premier Leonid Brezhnev signed the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty SALT Iwhich prohibited the manufacture of nuclear missiles by both sides and took a step toward reducing the decades-old threat of nuclear war. Like many leaders of his generation, Reagan believed that the spread of communism anywhere threatened freedom everywhere.
As a result, he worked to provide financial and military aid to anticommunist governments and insurgencies around the world.
This policy, particularly as it was applied in the developing world in places like Grenada and El Salvador, was known as the Reagan Doctrine. Soviet influence in Eastern Europe waned. Inevery other communist state in the region replaced its government with a noncommunist one.
In November of that year, the Berlin Wall—the most visible symbol of the decades-long Cold War—was finally destroyed, just over two years after Reagan had challenged the Soviet premier in a speech at Brandenburg Gate in Berlin: Gorbachev, tear down this wall.Policy of Containment: America’s Cold War Strategy The Cold War The following article on the Cold War policy of containment is an excerpt from Lee Edwards and Elizabeth Edwards Spalding’s book A Brief History of the Cold War It is available to order now at Amazon and Barnes & Noble.
United States installed icmb in the US and Britain and prepared to deploy more in italy and turkey defense contractors sought for a more powerful weapons system military industrial complex: alliance of the armed forces, defense contractors and members of .
Look at the map below. During the Cold War, which country controlled the shaded nations? How was the United States' policy of containment related to the Marshall Plan? d. The United States believed that the economic aid provided by the Marshall Plan would help contain the spread of Communism.
During the Cold War, how were the . The New Look was the name given to the national security policy of the United States during the administration of President Dwight D.
Eisenhower. It reflected Eisenhower's concern for balancing the Cold War military commitments of the United States with the nation's financial resources. Dwight D. Eisenhower brought a "New Look" to U.S.
national security policy in The main elements of the New Look were: (1) maintaining the vitality of the U.S. economy while still building sufficient strength to prosecute the Cold War; (2) relying on nuclear weapons to deter Communist. The United States and the Origins of the Cold War, New York: Columbia University Press, New York: Columbia University Press, Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of Postwar American National Security Policy.